Perception of space is, above all, relative; hence notion of 'mental space', perceiving one's surroundings on a personal, intimate scale. Such a perception is dependant not only on what is actually being seen, but also on a language of patterns developed by the perceiver. The mental space is a convention of perception, which reflects one's mind map, a language of patterns derived from multiple factors such as one's upbringing, education, individual experiences, context in which one lives or language one speaks and, last but not least, subconsciousness. The end of 19th century has brought a breath of fresh air into the field of psychology. Alexius Meinong has established the first psychological laboratory in Leipzig, where he conducted his first experiments, and defined 'experimental psychology' itself. His interests have been described as “a meeting point of inner and outside life of the examined”. Such an innovative approach towards the topic has drawn architects’ attention to psychological aspects of the process of perception. His examinations were conducted parallelly to the introduction of the term of 'space' in the architectural discourse. Discoveries regarding psychology of perception have opened new ways of thinking in and of architecture. Henri Lefebvre, French philosopher, has analysed and defined multiple definitions of space. Thus, he determined mental space, space of thinking and dreaming, and geometrical, urban space, one in which we live our everyday life. On the other hand, Franz Xaver Baier has distinguished as many as 44 types of space in regard to how they influence the subconsciousness. For example, he has determined spaces such as 'frightful' or 'rapid'.

 

Aforementioned psychology of space has, to a great extent, influenced many creations, among which especially lucid and interesting is totalitarian architecture. Although similar tools and solutions have been already used before, in this instance use of its power is clear in its purpose and unmatched in its strength. References to absolutism can easily emerge, where large-scale, often symmetrical master plans were subordinated to one building of immense value or meaning. Versailles was one of the first urban compositions in history, which has been designed to respond not to military or economical requirements, but pure ideology.

 

 

Personal scale

The Great Hall, Albert Speer

Perception of space is, above all, relative; hence notion of 'mental space', perceiving one's surroundings on a personal, intimate scale. Such a perception is dependant not only on what is actually being seen, but also on a language of patterns developed by the perceiver. The mental space is a convention of perception, which reflects one's mind map, a language of patterns derived from multiple factors such as one's upbringing, education, individual experiences, context in which one lives or language one speaks and, last but not least, subconsciousness. The end of 19th century has brought a breath of fresh air into the field of psychology. Alexius Meinong has established the first psychological laboratory in Leipzig, where he conducted his first experiments, and defined 'experimental psychology' itself. His interests have been described as “a meeting point of inner and outside life of the examined”. Such an innovative approach towards the topic has drawn architects’ attention to psychological aspects of the process of perception. His examinations were conducted parallelly to the introduction of the term of 'space' in the architectural discourse. Discoveries regarding psychology of perception have opened new ways of thinking in and of architecture. Henri Lefebvre, French philosopher, has analysed and defined multiple definitions of space. Thus, he determined mental space, space of thinking and dreaming, and geometrical, urban space, one in which we live our everyday life. On the other hand, Franz Xaver Baier has distinguished as many as 44 types of space in regard to how they influence the subconsciousness. For example, he has determined spaces such as 'frightful' or 'rapid'.

 

Aforementioned psychology of space has, to a great extent, influenced many creations, among which especially lucid and interesting is totalitarian architecture. Although similar tools and solutions have been already used before, in this instance use of its power is clear in its purpose and unmatched in its strength. References to absolutism can easily emerge, where large-scale, often symmetrical master plans were subordinated to one building of immense value or meaning. Versailles was one of the first urban compositions in history, which has been designed to respond not to military or economical requirements, but pure ideology.